Important Sociology Mcqs from Past Papers for Sociology Lecturer Test Preparation

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 Which of these is NOT an example of target hardening ?

A. anti-social behavior orders
B. Steering locks
C. burglar alrams
D. CCTV

Which approach framed their analysis of crime and deviance in terms of this preservation of power by the ruling class ?

A. New Left Realism
B. Right Realism
C. new criminology
D. interactionism

Merton describes types of response to a situation where there are widely socially endorsed values but limited means of achieving them. Which of his types describes an acceptance of the values but willingness to use any means to achieve them?

A. Conformists
B. innovators
C. ritualists
D. retrealists

What is defined as ‘non-conformity to a given set or norms that are accepted by a significant number of people in a community or society ?

A. criminality
B. deviance
C. recidivism
D. degeneracy

Which of the following is not a reason why corporate crime is more difficult to prosecute compared with individual crimes ?

A. victims may not realise that a crime has been committed
B. it is more difficult to apportion blame to corporate criminals
C. legal systems are founded on individual not collective responsibility
D. corporate offences cause less harm than crimes against an individual

Which of these is not a concept associated with Left Realist explanations of criminal subcultures ?

A. social exclusion
B. individual pathology
C. political marginalization
D. relative deprivation

Robert Merton’s ideas on crime and deviance make use of the concept of anomie. What does anomie mean in Merton’s work ?

A. Normlessness
B. meaninglessness
C. social strain
D. social adaptation

The “natural law” approach is essentially concerned with__________________?

A. civil law or torts
B. limiting the powers of wealthy businessmen
C. family law
D. limiting the powers of government
E. the protection of universal human rights

The key concept in labelling theory is that of____________________?

A. stigma
B. commitment
C. aspiration
D. motivation
E. acceptance

Which of the following was not identified as one of the four major social bonds in Hirschi’s Social Control theory ?

A. religiosity
B. commitment
C. involvement
D. belief
E. attachment

Sutherland’s Differential Association theory emphasizes that crime and deviance are basically______________?

A. due to poor parenting
B. learned
C. psychotic
D. biological
E. the result of being labelled

According to Strain theory, retreatants are likely to engage in what type of deviant activity ?

A. Sexual assault
B. terrorism
C. counterfeiting
D. drug abuse
E. robbery

The sociologist responsible for the modern-day adaptation of strain theory is______________?

A. Weber
B. Cohen
C. Marx
D. Merton
E. Chambliss

Biological positivists have tended to focus on what type of crime ?

A. Violent
B. juvenile
C. drug-related
D. white collar

The rise in patriotism following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, is an example of what function of deviance ?

A. Warning
B. Solidarity
C. Unification
D. Authoritarian
E. Boundary setting

According to Quinine, crimes of “domination and repression” are committed by ______________?

A. People who aspire to the upper class
B. The ruling elite
C. white collar businessmen
D. gang members
E. the lower socio-economic strate

The classic sociological study of two juvenile groups called the “Saints” and the “Roughnecks” was conducted by______________?

A. Chambliss
B. Lynch
C. Merton
D. Bentham
E. Turk

Punishments, or negative sanctions, are especially important at the _______ level?

A. informal
B. societal
C. traditional
D. formal
E. adolescen

Sociological definitions of deviance consist of behaviors, beliefs, and_______________?

A. attributes
B. realities
C. Choices
D. records
E. Conditions

Which of the following in NOT associated with functionalism ?

A. Talcott Parsons
B. Ralf Dahrendorf
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Robert Merton

The feeling of aimlessness or despair often associated with unsettling conditions is_______________?

A. alienation
B. amorality
C. anomie
D. ascription

Theoretical approaches can only be said to be valid if______________?

A. the theorist has researched the literature thoroughly
B. they have been tested out by means of factual research
C. they are written in such a way as to be impossible to disprove
D. they are shared by a large enough number of theorists

The theory of relative deprivation is an example of what ______________?

A. macro sociological theory
B. feminist sociological theory
C. micro sociological theory
D. middle-range sociological theory

What does the functionalist perspective see as crucial for the maintenance of social order ?

A. strong class-based identities
B. multiculturalism
C. moral consensus
D. a strong state

Which of the following is not part of karl Marx,s theory of capitalism ?

A. capitalist production exploits the working class
B. class conflict is inevitable in capitalist societies
C. industrial workers are the revolutionary class
D. class struggle only occurs under capitalism

According to Durkheim the division of labor in industrial societies brings about______________?

A. organic solidarity
B. a loss of social solidarity
C. mechanical solidarity
D. communal solidarity

Which of these statements best represents C. Wright-Mills,s idea of the sociological imagination ?

A. understanding the differences between the classical theorists
B. bringing together private troubles and public issues
C. seeing the social world as one made up of Social facts
D. avoiding explanations based on individual psychology

Whose theorizing according societal change comes closer to lqbal,s verse. Tujh ko bataoon taqdeer-e-huma kia hai shamsheer o Sannan Awwal taus o rabab akhir ?

A. Karl Max
B. Ibn-e-Khaldum
C. George Hegel
D. None of these

A close connection between religion and economic forces has been presented by____________?

A. Max Weber
B. Karl Max
C. Emile Durkheim
D. C-Wright Mills

Secularization involves the two related ideas of__________________?

A. disappointment and disproportion
B. disbelief and disintegration
C. disengagement and disenchantment
D. distribution and distillation

In the division of Labor in Society Emile Durkheim presented the idea of______________?

A. Mechanical and organic solidarity
B. Physical and social solidarity
C. physiological and mechanical solidarity
D. None of these

Society is a complex organization of parts that function to fulfil the requirements and promote the needs of the whole is a concept of________________?

A. structural functionalism
B. interaction school of thought
C. Phenom ology
D. None of these

Which sociologist introduced the concept of culture lag ?

A. William F. Ogbum
B. Talcott Parsons
C. Auguste Comte
D. Thorstein Veblen

The Communist Manifesto was written by____________?

A. Karl Marx and Georg Hegel
B. George Herbert Mead and Jane Addams
C. Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx
D. Talcott Parsons and Robert Merton

Which of the following sociology never wrote a book and about whose thoughts most of our knowledge is presented in an edited volume of his lectures published by his students after his death ?

A. George Herbert Mead
B. Karl Marx
C. Emile Durkheim
D. Max Weber

Robert Merton,s contributions to sociology include______________?

A. successfully combining theory and research
B. an analysis of deviant behavior that focuses on societal goals and means
C. an attempt to bring macro- and micro
D. all of the above

In his study of suicide Emile Durkheim was primarily concerned with________________?

A. suicide rates and how they varied from country to country
B. personalities of individual suicide victims
C. means people used to take their own lives
D. effects of suicide on the families of victims

The survival of the fittest was the concept presented by_______________?

A. Marx
B. Durkheim
C. Herbert Spencer
D. None of these

The sociology was simply the Science of Social facts is the view of______________?

A. Marx
B. Weber
C. Durkheim
D. All of above

According to Marx Capitalism replaced feudalism and itself will be displaced by_____________?

A. Feudalism
B. communism
C. Economic equalitarianism
D. None of these

Comte gave the law of_______________?

A. Four phases
B. three phases
C. Two phases
D. All of above

Ibne Khaldun in his theories is near to______________?

A. Kurkheim
B. Comte
C. Marx
D. All of abov

The Muqaddimah is an early Muslim view of______________?

A. society
B. social Change
C. universal History
D. all of above

Ibne Khaldun is best known for______________?

A. Muamlla
B. Muqaddimah
C. Muzakira
D. None of these

The distribution of power in society is a concern for______________?

A. microsociology
B. interactionism
C. macrosociology
D. ethnomethodology

Merton’s term for the hidden or forgotten reason for a particular behavior was______________?A. middle-range function
B. consumption function
C. latent function
D. structural function

It is useful to have a diversity of theories in sociology because_________________?

A. human behavior is so complicated that no single theory would be adequate
B. sociologists can choose the theory that best fits the data they have collected
C. it removes the need to assess a theory according the empirical evidence
D. innumerable theories have been developed in the many fields of sociology

Which one of the following is NOT associated with the materialist conception of history ?

A. the mode of production
B. the motor of history
C. the history of class struggle
D. the spirit of capitalism

According to Durkheim social facts are________________?

A. ways of behaving that are external to individuals
B. only things that have been shown to be true
C. social insights into collective behavior
D. information captured by official statistics

Sociology has been said to be the product of______________?

A. the French and Industrial Revolutions
B. the Chinese and Agricultural Revolutions
C. the Russian and Scientific Revolutions
D. the American and Democratic Revolutions

Which of the following influenced the theoretical approach known as symbolic interactionism ?

A. Georg Hegel
B. George Herbert Mead
C. Talcott Parsons
D. Ralf Dahrendof

Max Weber,s work made use of ideal types What are they ?

A. the most commonly found type of social organization
B. conceptual or analytical models of social phenomena
C. philosophical models of an ideal human society
D. models of society based on up to date statistical evidence

A rising suicide rate associated with normlessness and a lack of social regulation can be described as______________?

A. egoistic suicide
B. altruistic suicide
C. fatalistic suicide
D. anomic suicide

What did Auguste Comte mean by positivism in sociology ?

A. sociological research must contribute to a governments social policy
B. sociology should be optimistic about human achievements
C. sociology should make use of statistical evidence
D. sociology should adopt the same methods as the natural sciences

According to Emily Durkheim the mechanic solidarity is based on______________?

A. Blood relation and neighborhood
B. divine of labor and specialization
C. the contribution individuals make to each other
D. None of these

Those who cannot compete have on right for higher learning and must be refused accordingly who believed in the above thesis ?

A. Auguste Comte
B. Spencer
C. Karl Max
D. None of these

Which of these is most closely associated with Marx,s thinking ?

A. integration
B. conflict
C. social facts
D. consensus

Karl Marx,s view of the struggle between social classes inspired the contemporary ?

A. functionalist perspective
B. conflict perspective
C. interactionist perspective
D. dramaturgical approach

The concepts of protestant and Bourgeois were presented by_______________?

A. Talcat parson
B. Karl Marx
C. Max Weber
D. Emile Durkheim

Weber said that the spirit of capitalism could be traced back to_______________?

A. the movement towards religious pluralism
B. inspirational Protestant groups who revived religious ideas
C. new religious movements who rejected traditional forms of labor
D. Calvinists who engaged in ascetic practices to gain signs of salvation

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